Electronic Theses and Dissertations




Asifa Qasim



Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




Applied Linguistics

Committee Chair

Emily Thrush

Committee Member

Teresa Dalle

Committee Member

Sage Graham

Committee Member

Lyn Fogle


This study investigates the relationship between Pakistani university teachers’ beliefs and practices concerning how written corrective feedback (WCF) should be provided on student English as Foreign Language (EFL) writing and the contributing factors that impede the teachers from translating their beliefs into practice. In particular, the research seeks to examine the current written feedback practices of EFL university teachers, the kinds of written feedback employed, and perceptions regarding the variety of approaches employed to respond to student writing. The data for this research were collected from 39 EFL teachers from four different public-sector universities in Pakistan. Survey questionnaire, corrective feedback samples, and semi-structured interviews were utilized to explore the teachers’ beliefs and practices through quantitative and qualitative analysis of data. The study showed both match and mismatch between teachers’ beliefs and practices. Teacher beliefs concerning the benefits of providing written error correction were reflected in their responses to the survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Teacher beliefs also predominantly matched up with their practices concerning the amount and focus of WCF. However, teacher beliefs were partially congruent as it pertained to the explicitness of WCF, the employment of positive feedback, and the source of WCF. Feedback samples showed that the teachers provided both direct and indirect WCF while holding the belief that feedback should be mostly indirect. Moreover, the majority of teachers claimed to provide WCF on both content and language form while the feedback they actually provided was mostly on language form. It is also pertinent to mention that the teachers maintained that they fostered autonomy in their students by providing positive feedback while the feedback samples clearly reflect the teachers’ tendency to provide negative feedback. In addition, there was a complete congruence between the teachers’ beliefs and practices in terms teacher-centered corrective feedback approach. Various contextual factors concerning overall educational and cultural context (e.g., time allocated to cover the syllabus, large class size), teachers (e.g., teachers’ experience), and students (e.g., proficiency levels, expectations) were found to affect teachers’ perceptions and practices regarding WCF. results showed some similarity with prior studies in that teachers’ beliefs, contextual factors, experience, and educational background may have had an influence on their feedback practices, at least those stated by the teachers in this research.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

dissertation or thesis originally submitted to the local University of Memphis Electronic Theses & dissertation (ETD) Repository.