Electronic Theses and Dissertations




Jay Hinton



Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Health and Sport Science


Exercise and Sport Science

Committee Chair

Douglas W. Powell

Committee Member

Maxime R. Paquette

Committee Member

Melissa Puppa

Committee Member

Jenna Yentes


A barrier to exercise for female runners is exercise-induced breast pain or discomfort. Increasing levels of breast support has been shown to reduce exercise-induced breast motion, reduce breast pain and discomfort, and may alter running kinematics in female runners, but its effects on the organization of the neuromuscular system is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of breast support on the organization of the neuromuscular system and quantify LDS (LDS) at the ankle, knee, and hip during running tasks. 13 female recreational athletes performed three minutes of running in three different breast support conditions (CON, LOW, HIGH), at three different running speeds (SLOW, PREF, FAST). The Largest Lyapunov’s Exponent was used to analyze the fluctuations in lower extremity joint angles and quantify LDS. A 3x3 repeated measure analysis of covariance was used to determine the effect of support and speed, while covarying for self-reported breast size. No significant effect of support LDS was observed at the ankle, knee; however, an effect of support was observed at the hip, with LOW have greater LDS than HIGH and CON. An effect of speed was observed at the ankle, with both CON and PREF having less LDS than FAST. These findings suggest that both breast support and speed alter LDS during running, and that the neuromuscular system adopts a local-to-remote strategy for perturbation attenuation.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

Dissertation or thesis originally submitted to the local University of Memphis Electronic Theses & dissertation (ETD) Repository.