Electronic Theses and Dissertations




Yin Yee Choo



Document Type

Dissertation (Access Restricted)

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




Analytical Chemistry

Committee Chair

Gary L Emmert

Committee Member

Paul S Simone Jr.

Committee Member

Xiao Hua Huang

Committee Member

Xuan Zhao


Two different approaches were developed to enable water operators to control trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) concentrations in drinking water. The first approach involved the development of a cost effective option for the water utilities to perform routine monitoring of THMs and HAAs on-site. The second approach involved the assessment of the contribution of HAAs detected in bulk sodium hypochlorite solutions to the total concentrations of HAAs in the drinking water. Disinfection by-product-rapid response (DBP-RR) kit was developed for on-site process control of THMs and HAAs in drinking water. The original research behind this kit is derived from capillary membrane sampler-flow injection analysis (CMS-FIA). The CMS device is used to separate THMs species from HAAs species into two separate aliquots, followed by reaction with nicotinamide and base to yield glutaconaldehyde derivatives that are quantified using a handheld fluorimeter. The method detection limit (MDL) established for Total HAAs and Total THMs was 15.7 ± 4.1 μg L-1 and 17.7 ± 3.8 μg L-1. Samples collected from various locations in the United States were analyzed and the results were compared to the reference methods. The kit and the analytical method were tested at a municipal water utility and a typical algorithm is suggested for on-site process monitoring. The semi-automated version of the kit was developed using a software to automate the sampling process and the majority of data manipulation. A preconcentration technique was developed for HAAs that improves the MDL for Total HAA9 from 15.7 μg L-1 to 4.5 μg L-1. Grab water samples were analyzed using the preconcentration method and the results were compared to the reference method. In the second approach, post column reaction- ion chromatography (PCR-IC), was used to detect and quantify the HAAs species present in the bulk hypochlorite solutions. The HAAs concentrations were normalized with respect to hypochlorite concentration (HAAs/FAC ratio). This ratio provides insight into the contribution of hypochlorite solution to the HAAs in the distribution system.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

Dissertation or thesis originally submitted to the local University of Memphis Electronic Theses & dissertation (ETD) Repository.