Electronic Theses and Dissertations


Expanding the Use of Membrane Based Methods for Measuring Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products





Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation (Access Restricted)

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy




Analytical Chemistry

Committee Chair

Gary L. Emmert

Committee Member

Paul S. Simone

Committee Member

Eugene Pinkhassik

Committee Member

Chunrong Jia


This research expanded the use of membrane base methods for disinfection by-products. The use of the capillary membrane sampler (CMS) device is what makes the analyte separation possible for all of these instruments. Three different instruments were developed. Each method was evaluated by conducting limit of linearity (LOL), method detection limit (MDL), accuracy, precision, and bias studies. Optimization studies on each instrument were also conducted to determine the best conditions for each instrument. Once all of these aspects were determined drinking water samples were analyzed on the three methods. An automated capillary membrane sampler-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CMS-GC-MS) was developed and assessed. This instrument used internal standardization and was able to obtain MDL values of 0.43 - 0.51 µg L–1. Water samples were analyzed with this instrument and found to have THM4 concentrations of less than 16.1 µg L–1, which is well below the maximum contaminate level of 80 µg L–1 set by the USEPA. This instrument was extremely effective when analyzing drinking water samples. An automated capillary membrane sampler-flow injection analysis single point standard (CMS-FIA SPS) alpha prototype was developed and evaluated. This instrument has the ability to analyze TTHMs and THAAs, which non of the USEPA methods have this capability. This instrument was able to calibrate on every analysis due to the use of the SPS. The CMS-FIA SPS had MDL values of 4.5 µg L–1 for HAAs and 8.5 µg L–1 for THMs. When analyzing drinking water samplles this instrument suffered from matrix effects. It was because of this problem that the instrument was tested with standard addition, which does take into account matrix effects from the samples. The research with the CMS-FIA SPS showed that the instrument concept had some flaws but was easily changed to compensate for these flaws by using standard addition. A semi-automated disinfection by-product-rapid response kit (DBP-RR Kit) was developed and evaluated. This instrument is also an alpha prototype, however, would be less expensive than the CMS-FIA SPS. The chemistry of this instrument is the same as with the CMS-FIA SPS. This instrument uses the technique of standard addition to take into account sample matrix issues from drinking water samples. This proof of concept investigation was determined to have merit; thus, the instrument has been continued to be used.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

Dissertation or thesis originally submitted to the local University of Memphis Electronic Theses & dissertation (ETD) Repository.

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