Electronic Theses and Dissertations



Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



Committee Chair

Rebecca Adams

Committee Member

Evelyn Wright

Committee Member

Teresa Dalle


Over the years, an interest in switching between the L1 and L2 in L2 classroom instruction has grown in SLA research in parallel with the uptick in corrective feedback (CF) research. Separate studies on CF (e.g., Shirani, 2019; Bryfonski & Ma, 2020) and L1 use (e.g., Iyitoglu, 2016) have found that CF and language switching promote L2 learning, with L1 use facilitating the accomplishment of cognitively demanding tasks. However, research has not considered how switching between languages in the provision of CF impacts learning opportunities. This dissertation combined CF and language switching and explored the role of CF practices in L1 and L2 on learner uptakes in Arabic as a foreign language context in a lower intermediate (LI) and a higher intermediate (HI) level classes each comprising 15 students at a school in the mid-south USA addressing two main questions: CF in L1 and its relation to uptake. The data were collected through a total of 20-hour observations in two Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL) classes. A total of 2 teachers and 30 students were observed. Ranta and Lysters (2007) taxonomy of CF types and uptakes was modified to code and descriptively analyze the L1 and L2 use across CF types, as well as the uptake and repair moves. Both teachers were also interviewed in two phases after the observations to investigate their CF attitudes in relation to their CF practices in the classroom. The interview data were coded based on CF categories and different error types optimized from Lyster and Ranta (1997, 2007) and analyzed as attitude objects following Schiffman and Kanuk's (2004) tripartite attitude model. The results show that the amount of switching between the L1 and L2, and CF use significantly vary in the two proficiency classes. Ahlan uses greater CF frequency and almost equally switches between the L1 and L2 in her lower intermediate class whereas Faruq provides far less CF and almost always uses the L2 during CF interactions in his higher intermediate class. Ahlan uses only explicit CF strategies such as explicit corrections, elicitation and metalinguistic cue, mixed feedback, and didactic recast (only in the L2), and Faruq also predominantly uses the explicit corrective feedback strategies. Mixed feedback with the L1 and L2 and recast only with the L2 are the most frequently used CF strategies in both classes. Whereas Ahlan focuses on learners lexical errors and Faruq mainly addresses the grammatical errors. Ahlans explicit correction and mixed feedback in the L1 lead to the highest repairs. Her mixed feedback, explicit correction, recast, metalinguistic feedback, and elicitation in the L2 all effectively lead to high repairs. Likewise, Faruqs elicitation, mixed feedback, and recast in the L2 result in very high repairs.Ahlans positive attitudes toward CF types and language switching and her focus on learners lexical errors are exemplified in her high CF frequency, especially prompts and her switching between the L1 and L2. However, her preference only for prompts and implicit CF types mismatches with her exclusive use of explicit CF types that included both reformulations and prompts. Faruqs less frequent use of CF and exclusive use of the target language conforms to his beliefs about CF and LI use showing that he is not a steadfast supporter of CF and language switching in the L2 classroom.The findings implicate that corrective feedback with language switching can be effective in leading to uptakes and repairs in low proficiency language classes where teachers alternate between the L1 and L2 in a balanced way to facilitate learners better understanding and promote oral interactions. So, L2 teachers should opt to switch between the L1, and L2 during CF interaction based on learner proficiency levels and learner needs to engage learners in CF interactions and promote learner uptake. L2 teachers can go through a developmental transition from switching between the L1 and L2 in the low proficiency level to using the L2 in the high proficiency level.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

Dissertation or thesis originally submitted to ProQuest