Electronic Theses and Dissertations



Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Business Administration

Committee Chair

Kristen Jones

Committee Member

Alex Lindsey

Committee Member

Caitlin Porter

Committee Member

Enrica Ruggs


Research on employee voice has more recently expanded to include the experiences of historically marginalized employees, such as employees of color and queer employees, but consideration of the concomitant impact that race and gender has on employee voice experiences is largely absent from the literature. Integrating the Backlash Avoidance Model and double jeopardy theory, this dissertation explores potential predictors of employee voice, both fear of backlash and psychological safety and the way in which race and gender may influence these relationships. Further, I examine how the impact of employee expressions of voice on work-related outcomes might vary as a function of others’ reactions to voice behavior. Findings suggest that the positive relationship between psychological safety and employee voice does vary by gender. Additionally, findings suggest that employee voice is a powerful tool that can increase positive work attitudes (job satisfaction) and behavior (OCBs) even in the face of the negative effects of hostile coworker reactions.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

Dissertation or thesis originally submitted to ProQuest


Open Access