Electronic Theses and Dissertations



Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Communication Sciences & Disorders

Committee Chair

Miriam van Mersbergen

Committee Member

Marilyn Wark

Committee Member

Naomi Eichorn

Committee Member

Karen Crow


This study aims to examine individual differences of the voice’s contribution to the self via implicit and explicit associations. A new Implicit Association Test (IAT) about the voice was created and presented to vocal performers and community controls. One-hundred eleven participants completed this voice-related IAT, the Vocal Congruence Scale (VCS), and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) via an in person, monitored, and timed Qualtrics survey. Findings demonstrated an implicit relationship between the voice and the self. Strength of implicit relationships between self and voice were greater for community controls than vocal performers. This IAT revealed divergent validity with the VCS and VHI. Clinical implications suggest that individuals with an explicit voice relationship may require an overt style of communication, while those with an implicit voice-relationship may still rely on their voice as contributing to their sense of self, even if they do not overtly declare such a relationship.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

Dissertation or thesis originally submitted to ProQuest


Open Access