Electronic Theses and Dissertations



Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Leadership & Policy Studies

Committee Chair

Ronald Platt

Committee Member

Susan N Nordstrom

Committee Member

William L Akey

Committee Member

Stephen A Zanskas


Historically, race has been at the forefront in determining seats at the proverbial table of success. Dating back to the civil rights movement, racial inequity was the catalyst that ignited this defining movement. According to Crenshaw (2010), critical race theory was a social and legal frame connected to race that was used to mobilize individuals into a movement against racial injustice. Color blinded by privilege; most members of the dominant culture have been afforded access to success based on their race. The people of the majority culture would have one to believe that racism is ordinary, one of the tenets of critical race theory. Decuir and Dixson (2004) stated that color blindness and meritocracy allow the majority culture to turn a blind and neutral eye to the distastefulness associated with racism and maintain control of the white power hierarchy in society. Whites remain the haves, and people of the color continue to be the have nots. Critical Race Theory challenges these racial misnomers and invites counternarratives from the marginalized group (Decuir & Dixson, 2004). Governmental powers in the United States are divided up among state, federal, and local governments under federalism. Although the United States' Constitution does not provide the federal government with powers over education, the federal government – through funding law and policy – has encroached upon education policy, an area of law and regulation constitutionally assigned to state governments (Nelson, 2018). Education federalism, the phrase used to identify the unique ways in which federalism applies in education policy, has led to states adopting various school funding policies that have varying outcomes across and within state boundaries. State and local level school funding policies with the aid of federal education policy have had disparate and inequitable impacts on urban schools.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

Dissertation or thesis originally submitted to ProQuest.


Open Access