Electronic Theses and Dissertations



Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Leadership & Policy Studies

Committee Chair

Steven Nelson

Committee Member

Derrick Robinson

Committee Member

Ladrica Menson-Furr

Committee Member

Charisse Gulosino


Abstract Examining adult learners' perceptions of effective teaching in career and technical education is needed to enhance the principal objective of refining learning value is determining acceptable teaching practices for the student (Davies & Wilson, 2020). In addition, this subject is worth investigating to highlight the social inequalities that plague nontraditional learners' lives within the educational system (Clycq et al., 2014). Finally, to show the need for a support system inside the classroom and out (Chao & Good, 2004). Duncan-Andrade (2009) introduces the concept of Critical Hope. Critical Hope comprises three elements that can stand independently or collectively: material, Socratic, and audacious. Effective teaching relies on student self-reflection to improve opportunities for nontraditional adult students through the careful analysis of personal beliefs and instructional behaviors. Critical Hope, in its totality, allows for the cultivation of students without limits. Critical Hope then becomes an intellectual contract between the instructor and students. The effective instructor will teach the information relevant to the students actively within the classroom instead of using a predetermined curriculum that does not consider the living condition of students. Culturally Relevant Andragogy through liberatory education incorporating “critical thinking” and authentic dialogue increases “critical consciousness” and thus the motivation for integrating” service-learning in career and technical education” (Duncan-Andrade, 2009; Freire, 2018; Perkins, 2006). Finally, making sure the student understands that learning is continuous; will encourage the student to endure to find connections in experience and knowledge.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

Dissertation or thesis originally submitted to ProQuest.


Open access