Electronic Theses and Dissertations





Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Instr and Curr Leadership


Special Education

Committee Chair

Sandra Cooley-Nichols

Committee Member

Stephen A. Zanskas

Committee Member

Kay C. Reeves


In 2001, No Child Left Behind introduced the highly qualifiedstatus for k-12 teachers, which mandatedthe successfulscores on a series of high-stakestest; within this series is the Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) orPRAXISI. The PPSTmeasures basic k-12 skills for reading, writing, and mathematics.The mathematics sub-test is a national concern because some American high school students may graduate with basic math skills deficits that may prohibit their performance on the PPST. One approach to understanding this national concern is to explore the PPST preparation materials. This study focused on the numbers and operations, Algebra, Geometry and measurement, and data analysis and probability categories found within the study guide questions and test questions to statistically address the categorical reading ease and grade level means for the PPST study guide (basic) math skills questions and the PPST (basic) math skills test questions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the PPST study guide questions when compared to the PPST (basic) math skills test questions. The math test was selected because on the reading, grammar, and math portions of the PPST basic skills test, across demographic groups tested, the math score is reflective of lower scores earned. To enhance learning, it is hypothesized that studyguide questions should be more complex than test questions are; this hypothesis is based upon low-road transfer of knowledge and high-road transfer of knowledge. Involving only ETS questions, the one-way ANOVA and Scheffe method examined this theory. The sample consisted of 320 questions,200 questions wereeliminated because of duplication and 10 questions were removed due to categorical contamination. One hundred and ten questions remained in the study. The statistical results revealed no significance (differences) between the study guide questions and the test questions for numbers and operations, Algebra, and Geometry and measurement. The data analysis and probability questions wereeliminated. Statisticalevidence supports the position that a low-road knowledge of transfer exist between thePPSTmath study guide questions andthe PPSTbasic math skills test questions.


Data is provided by the student.

Library Comment

dissertation or thesis originally submitted to the local University of Memphis Electronic Theses & dissertation (ETD) Repository.