Title

Self-regulated learning and failure

Abstract

To date, many inquiry-based learning environments ask learners to solve ill-structured problems. This is potentially challenging from a selfregulated learning perspective because learners are simultaneously responsible for knowledge acquisition and resolving the assigned problem. When learners are posed with ill-structured problems, it is likely they will engage in some degree of failure; therefore, it is critical to understand how learners overcome this failure in pursuit of their learning. Research on failure suggest that when learners encounter errors, there are benefits to learning. However, extant failure theories come from a variety of domains and underscore different ways in which individuals should self-regulate their learning. Given the intersection of inquiry-based learning, self-regulated learning, and failure, we first survey the related theories. We also present a unified failure model that attempts to reconcile the different terminologies and approaches to failure. Finally, we conclude with examples of learning technologies that strategically employ failure to engender learning gains. Implications for theory and learning systems design are also discussed.

Publication Title

Self-Regulated Learners: Strategies, Performance, and Individual Differences

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