What is “urban”? A CRT examination of the preparation of K-12 teachers for urban schools


One of the characteristics of the scholarship of critical race theorist Derrick Bell was the use of both spiritual texts and songs as a means to “better understand the fundamental question undergirding the theoretical formulation of many race-based analyses of social relations” (Tate, 2003, p. 123). For example, Bell (1987) used Jeremiah 8:20 to frame his book And We Are Not Saved: The Elusive Quest for Racial Justice. He asserted that three decades after the historic Supreme Court decision of 1954 regarding school desegregation, we were still not saved. According to Bell, the achievement of Brown v. Board of Education had been “so eroded as to bring us once again into fateful and frightful coincidence with Jeremiah’s lament” (p. 3).

Publication Title

Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education