Anisotropic compressive properties of passive porcine muscle tissue
The body has approximately 434 muscles, which makes up 40-50% of the body by weight. Muscle is hierarchical in nature and organized in progressively larger units encased in connective tissue. Like many soft tissues, muscle has nonlinear visco-elastic behavior, but muscle also has unique characteristics of excitability and contractibility. Mechanical testing of muscle has been done for crash models, pressure sore models, back pain, and other disease models. The majority of previous biomechanical studies on muscle have been associated with tensile properties in the longitudinal direction as this is muscle's primary mode of operation under normal physiological conditions. Injury conditions, particularly high rate injuries, can expose muscle to multiple stress states. Compressive stresses can lead to tissue damage, which may not be reversible. In this study, we evaluate the structure-property relationships of porcine muscle tissue under compression, in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations at 0.1 s-1, 0.01 s-1, or 0.001 s-1. Our results show an initial toe region followed by an increase in stress for muscle in both the longitudinal and transverse directions tested to 50% strain. Strain rate dependency was also observed with the higher strain rates showing significantly more stress at 50% strain. Muscle in the transverse orientation was significantly stiffer than in the longitudinal orientation indicating anisotropy. The mean area of fibers in the longitudinal orientation shows an increasing mean fiber area and a decreasing mean fiber area in the transverse orientation. Data obtained in this study can help provide insight on how muscle injuries are caused, ranging from low energy strains to high rate blast events, and can also be used in developing computational injury models.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Pietsch, R., Wheatley, B., Donahue, T., Gilbrech, R., Prabhu, R., Liao, J., & Williams, L. (2014). Anisotropic compressive properties of passive porcine muscle tissue. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 136 (11) https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4028088