Biomaterial and antibiotic strategies for peri-implantitis


Dental implants have 89% plus survival rates at 10-15 years, but peri-implantitis or dental implant infections may be as high as 14%. Peri-implantitis can limit clinical success and impose health and financial burdens to patients and health providers. The pathogenic species associated with periodontitis (e.g., Fusobacterium ssp, A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis) are also associated with peri-implantitis. Incidence of peri-implantitis is highest within the first 12 months after implantation, and is higher in patients who smoke or have poor oral health as well as with calcium-phosphate-coated or surface-roughened implants. Biomaterial therapies using fibers, gels, and beads to deliver antibiotics have been used in the treatment of Peri-implantitis though clinical efficacy is not well documented. Guided tissue regeneration membranes (e.g., collagen, poly-lactic/glycolic acid, chitosan, ePTFE) loaded with antimicrobials have shown success in reosseointegrating infected implants in animal models but have not been proven in humans. Experimental approaches include the development of anti-bioadhesion coatings, coating surfaces with antimicrobial agents (e.g., vancomycin, Ag, Zn) or antimicrobial releasing coatings (e.g., calcium phosphate, polylactic acid, chitosan). Future strategies include the development of surfaces that become antibacterial in response to infection, and improvements in the permucosal seal. Research is still needed to identify strategies to prevent bacterial attachment and enhance normal cell/tissue attachment to implant surfaces. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Publication Title

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials