Fabrication of cardiac patch with decellularized porcine myocardial scaffold and bone marrow mononuclear cells


Tissue engineered cardiac grafts are a promising therapeutic mode for ventricular wall reconstruction. Recently, it has been found that acellular tissue scaffolds provide natural ultrastructural, mechanical, and compositional cues for recellularization and tissue remodeling. We thus assess the potential of decellularized porcine myocardium as a scaffold for thick cardiac patch tissue engineering. Myocardial sections with 2-mm thickness were decellularized using 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and then reseeded with differentiated bone marrow mononuclear cells. We found that thorough decellularization could be achieved after 2.5 weeks of treatment. Reseeded cells were found to infiltrate and proliferate in the tissue constructs. Immunohistological staining studies showed that the reseeded cells maintained cardiomyocyte-like phenotype and possible endothelialization was found in locations close to vasculature channels, indicating angiogenesis potential. Both biaxial and uniaxial mechanical testing showed a stiffer mechanical response of the acellular myocardial scaffolds; however, tissue extensibility and tensile modulus were found to recover in the constructs along with the culture time, as expected from increased cellular content. The cardiac patch that we envision for clinical application will benefit from the natural architecture of myocardial extracellular matrix, which has the potential to promote stem cell differentiation, cardiac regeneration, and angiogenesis. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Publication Title

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A