Frequency dependence of the cardiac threshold to alternating current between 10 Hz and 160 Hz
It is still unclear what fundamental criteria influence the ability of alternating current (AC) to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in vivo. As the VF threshold has a bowl-shaped relationship with frequency (showing a minimum threshold at some frequency), similar to the nervous system, one proposed model has assumed that the mechanisms underlying AC stimulation of nerves are at work for VF induction. More recent work has suggested a second approach, whereby a simple RC-like model is sufficient to understand the cardiac AC stimulation threshold's frequency dependence, suggesting that some unarticulated mechanism is at work for VF. The paper directly tests these two models. In 12 intact dogs and 20 intact guinea pigs, DC pulses were used to stimulate AC square and AC sine waves at 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 Hz. All electrodes were endocardial, with the return electrode being on a paw or thorax. It was found that, for square and sine wave stimulation in both dogs and guinea pigs, the stimulation threshold increased monotonically with frequency from 10 Hz up to 160 Hz (p<0.01 for dogs and guinea pigs). Between 80 and 160 Hz, the AC stimulation threshold doubled, exactly as predicted by an RC model. It was concluded that the AC stimulation threshold is not bowl-shaped and is best understood with an RC model. As the VF threshold does exhibit a bowl-shape with frequency, as opposed to the stimulation threshold which does not, the VF induction frequency dependence must have different origins.
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing
Malkin, R., & de Jongh Curry, A. (2003). Frequency dependence of the cardiac threshold to alternating current between 10 Hz and 160 Hz. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 41 (6), 640-645. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02349971