Tetracycline nanoparticles loaded calcium sulfate composite beads for periodontal management


Background The objective of this study was to fabricate, characterize and evaluate in vitro, an injectable calcium sulfate bone cement beads loaded with an antibiotic nanoformulation, capable of delivering antibiotic locally for the treatment of periodontal disease. Methods Tetracycline nanoparticles (Tet NPs) were prepared using an ionic gelation method and characterized using DLS, SEM, and FTIR to determine size, morphology, stability and chemical interaction of the drug with the polymer. Further, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) control and CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads were prepared and characterized using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The drug release pattern, material properties and antibacterial activity were evaluated. In addition, protein adsorption, cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of the CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads in comparison to the CaSO4 control were analyzed. Results Tet NPs showed a size range of 130 ± 20 nm and the entrapment efficiency calculated was 89%. The composite beads showed sustained drug release pattern. Further the drug release data was fitted into various kinetic models wherein the Higuchi model showed higher correlation value (R2 = 0.9279) as compared to other kinetic models. The composite beads showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The presence of Tet NPs in the composite bead didn't alter its cytocompatibility. In addition, the composite beads enhanced the ALP activity of hPDL cells. Conclusions The antibacterial and cytocompatible CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads could be beneficial in periodontal management to reduce the bacterial load at the infection site. General significance Tet NPs would deliver antibiotic locally at the infection site and the calcium sulfate cement, would itself facilitate tissue regeneration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Publication Title

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects