Learning from healthy and stable eyes: A new approach for detection of glaucomatous progression
Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells, resulting in distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer. Important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, a crucial step in diagnosing and monitoring glaucoma. Three dimensional (3D) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, is now the standard of care for diagnosing and monitoring progression of numerous eye diseases. Method: This paper aims to detect changes in multi-temporal 3D SD-OCT ONH images using a hierarchical fully Bayesian framework and then to differentiate between changes reflecting random variations or true changes due to glaucoma progression. To this end, we propose the use of kernel-based support vector data description (SVDD) classifier. SVDD is a well-known one-class classifier that allows us to map the data into a high-dimensional feature space where a hypersphere encloses most patterns belonging to the target class. Results: The proposed glaucoma progression detection scheme using the whole 3D SD-OCT images detected glaucoma progression in a significant number of cases showing progression by conventional methods (78%), with high specificity in normal and non-progressing eyes (93% and 94% respectively). Conclusion: The use of the dependency measurement in the SVDD framework increased the robustness of the proposed change-detection scheme with comparison to the classical support vector machine and SVDD methods. The validation using clinical data of the proposed approach has shown that the use of only healthy and non-progressing eyes to train the algorithm led to a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting glaucoma progression compared to other methods.
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Belghith, A., Bowd, C., Medeiros, F., Balasubramanian, M., Weinreb, R., & Zangwill, L. (2015). Learning from healthy and stable eyes: A new approach for detection of glaucomatous progression. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (2), 105-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artmed.2015.04.002