Direct and interactive influence of explanatory variables on properties of a calcium phosphate cement for vertebral body augmentation


We used the response surface methodology to investigate the direct and interactive effects of three explanatory variables on three properties of a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for use in vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP). The variables were poly(ethylene glycol) content of the cement liquid (PEG), powder-to-liquid ratio (PLR), and the amount of Na 2HPO4 added to an aqueous solution of 4 wt/wt% poly(acrylic acid) (as the cement liquid) (SPC). The properties were injectability (I), final setting time (F), and 5-day compressive strength (UCS). We found that (1) there was an interactive effect between the variables on I and F but not on UCS; (2) the maximum I (98 %) was obtained with PEG = 20 wt/wt% and PLR = 2 g mL-1; (3) F = 15 min (the proposed optimum value for a CPC for use in VP and BKP) was obtained with PEG = 4 wt/wt% and PLR = 2.9 g mL-1; and (4) the maximum UCS (39 MPa) was obtained with SPC = 0 and PLR = 3.5 g mL-1. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Publication Title

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine