Optimal Control of a Battery Energy Storage System with a Charge-Temperature-Health Model


Battery energy storage is being installed behind-the-meter to reduce electrical bills while improving power system efficiency and resiliency. This paper demonstrates the development and application of an advanced optimal control method for battery energy storage systems to maximize these benefits. We combine methods for accurately modeling the state-of-charge, temperature, and state-of-health of lithium-ion battery cells into a model predictive controller to optimally schedule charge/discharge, air-conditioning, and forced air convection power to shift a electric customer's consumption and hence reduce their electric bill. While linear state-of-health models produce linear relationships between battery usage and degradation, a non-linear, stress-factor model accounts for the compounding improvements in lifetime that can be achieved by reducing several stress factors at once. Applying this controller to a simulated system shows significant benefits from cooling-in-the-loop control and that relatively small sacrifices in bill reduction performance can yield large increases in battery life. This trade-off function is highly dependent on the battery's degradation mechanisms and what model is used to represent them.

Publication Title

IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting