Intranasal Fentanyl and Midazolam Use in Children 3 Years of Age and Younger in the Emergency Department
Background: Although the efficacy and safety profiles of both intranasal fentanyl and midazolam are well studied in pediatric patients, few studies examine their use in younger children. Objectives: To examine and report our experiences in a pediatric emergency department (ED) with intranasal fentanyl and midazolam in children aged 3 years and younger. Methods: This retrospective study investigated intranasal fentanyl and midazolam administration, alone and in combination, in children 3 years and younger treated in a pediatric ED. Results: Of 6198 patients included, 1762 received intranasal fentanyl alone, 1115 received intranasal midazolam alone, and 3321 received combination therapy. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age was 2.2 (1.5–3) years. Initial median (IQR) fentanyl dose was 2.7 (2–3) µg/kg, with 13.3% receiving a repeat dose. Initial median (IQR) midazolam dose was 0.3 (0.2–0.3) mg/kg, with 3.3% receiving a second dose. Children receiving both fentanyl and midazolam had median (IQR) initial doses of 2.8 (2.1–3) µg/kg and 0.3 (0.2–0.3) mg/kg, respectively. Of these, 3.2% received repeat doses of both medications. Laceration repairs (33.8%) and incision and drainage (22.2%) accounted for the majority of indications. Only 2.9% (n = 178) received additional opioids. No serious adverse events requiring a reversal agent or respiratory support were reported. Conclusions: Intranasal fentanyl and midazolam, alone and in combination, can provide analgesia and anxiolysis to children aged 3 years and younger in the ED setting. Further prospective studies are needed to better evaluate their safety and efficacy in this younger population.
Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chang, J., Regen, R., Peravali, R., Harlan, S., Smeltzer, M., & Kink, R. (2021). Intranasal Fentanyl and Midazolam Use in Children 3 Years of Age and Younger in the Emergency Department. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 61 (6), 731-739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2021.09.006