Post-liver transplant outcomes in patients with major psychiatric diagnosis in the United States


Introduction and objectives: Higher rates of psychiatric disorders are reported among cirrhotic patients. This study examines the demographic and clinical outcomes post-liver transplant (LT) among cirrhotic patients with a major psychiatric diagnosis (cases) compared to those without psychiatric diagnosis (controls). Materials and methods: Retrospective case control design was used among 189 cirrhotic patients who had undergone LT at Methodist University Hospital Transplant Institute, Memphis, TN between January 2006 and December 2014. Multivariable regression and Cox proportional hazard regression were conducted to compare allograft loss and all-cause mortality. Results: The study sample consisted of a matched cohort of 95 cases and 94 controls with LT. Females and those with Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) were more likely to have psychiatric diagnosis. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were twice as likely to have allograft loss. Psychiatric patients with HCC had two and a half times (HR 2.54; 95% CI: 1.20–5.37; p = 0.015) likelihood of all-cause mortality. Data censored at 1-year post-LT revealed that patients with psychiatric diagnosis have a three to four times higher hazard for allograft loss and all-cause mortality compared to controls after adjusting for covariates, whereas when the data is censored at 5 year, allograft loss and all-cause mortality have two times higher hazard ratio. Conclusions: The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis of censored data at 1 and 5 year indicate higher allograft loss and all-cause mortality among LT patients with psychiatric diagnosis. Patients with well-controlled psychiatric disorders who undergo LT need close monitoring and medication adherence.

Publication Title

Annals of Hepatology