Sources of human infection by Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana: A systematic review


Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is one of the major causes of diarrheal disease throughout the world. In recent years, an increase in human S. Javiana infection has been reported from the southern part of the United States. However, the sources and routes of transmission of this Salmonella serotype are not well understood. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to identify risk factors for human S. Javiana infection. Using PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic search in Web of Science, PubMed, and the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Searches returned 63 potential articles, of which 12 articles met all eligibility criteria and were included in this review. A review of the literature indicated that both food and non-food (such as animal contact) exposures are responsible for the transmission of S. Javiana infection to humans. Consumption of fresh produce (tomatoes and watermelons), herbs (paprika-spice), dairy products (cheese), drinking contaminated well water and animal contact were associated with human S. Javiana infections. Based on the findings of this study, control of human S. Javiana infection should include three factors, (a) consumption of drinking water after treatment, (b) safe animal contact, and (c) safe food processing and handling procedures. The risk factors of S. Javiana infections identified in the current study provide helpful insight into the major vehicles of transmission of S. Javiana. Eventually, this will help to improve the risk management of this Salmonella serotype to reduce the overall burden of NTS infection in humans.

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