This chapter reviews research on human tutoring and also some technologies that enhance the tutoring experience. The previous chapter on tutoring in this Handbook series (Graesser, D’Mello, and Cade 2011) identified a number of tutoring strategies that human tutors routinely enact, as well as some ideal strategies they could use if they had the capacity to implement them. Some instructional strategies are so complex to apply that it takes an intelligent computer tutoring system to track what the student knows and to adaptively help the student by generating well-selected tutoring moves. Indeed, there is a growing field of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that has shown promise and is continuing its momentum in scaling up to accommodate millions of learners over the developmental life-span (Graesser, Conley, and Olney, 2012; Sottilare, Graesser, Hu, and Goldberg, 2014; Woolf, 2009). Moreover, both human tutors and computer tutors have shown impressive learning gains compared to classroom teaching and other comparison conditions, as we will document in this chapter. The focus of this chapter is on the instructional strategies and mechanisms that underlie tutoring, whether the tutor is another human or a computer.

Publication Title

Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction, Second edition