Miniaturized Ion-Selective Chip Electrode for Sensor Application
The performance of miniaturized potentiometric cells, with multilayer, planar ion-selective sensors in aqueous electrolyte solutions, human serum, urine, and whole blood, is presented. The basic steps of the fabrication with silicon technology are summarized. The effect of the contact surface between the internal reference system and the ion-sensitive membrane on the analytical characteristics of potassium- and calcium-sensitive sensors is studied. Silicone rubber-, high molecular weight PVC-, carboxylated PVC and aliphatic polyurethane (Tecoflex)-based solvent polymeric membranes were dispensed into anisotropically etched wells on silicon wafers, and the resulted planar sensors were tested in terms of their ion sensitivity (slopes of the cell voltage-pK or pCa calibration curves), long-term stability, and reproducibility. For the assay of potassium in whole blood, the miniaturized potentiometric cell was built in a flow-through manifold. To achieve the required precision, the flow conditions were optimized and the sensors calibrated periodically. The results prove the feasibility of the new sensor design and satisfy the particularly difficult requirements for the analysis of biological samples.
Uhlig, A., Lindner, E., Teutloff, C., Schnakenberg, U., & Hintsche, R. (1997). Miniaturized Ion-Selective Chip Electrode for Sensor Application. Analytical Chemistry, 69 (19), 4032-4038. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac960957d