Subtype-specific residues involved in ligand activation of the endothelial differentiation gene family lysophosphatidic acid receptors


Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a ligand for three endothelial differentiation gene family G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1-3. We performed computational modeling-guided mutagenesis of conserved residues in transmembrane domains 3, 4, 5, and 7 of LPA1-3 predicted to interact with the glycerophosphate motif of LPA C18:1. The mutants were expressed in RH7777 cells, and the efficacy (Emax) and potency (EC50) of LPA-elicited Ca2+ transients were measured. Mutation to alanine of R3.28 universally decreased both the efficacy and potency in LPA1-3 and eliminated strong ionic interactions in the modeled LPA complexes. The alanine mutation at Q3.29 decreased modeled interactions and activation in LPA1 and LPA2 more than in LPA3. The mutation W4.64A had no effect on activation and modeled LPA interaction of LPA 1 and LPA2 but reduced the activation and modeled interactions of LPA3. The R5.38A mutant of LPA2 and R5.38N mutant of LPA3 showed diminished activation by LPA; however, in LPA1 the D5.38A mutation did not, and mutation to arginine enhanced receptor activation. In LPA2, K7.36A decreased the potency of LPA; in LPA1 this same mutation increased the Emax. In LPA 3, R7.36A had almost no effect on receptor activation; however, the mutation K7.35A increased the EC50 in response to LPA 10-fold. In LPA1-3, the mutation Q3.29E caused a modest increase in EC 50 in response to LPA but caused the LPA receptors to become more responsive to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Surprisingly micromolar concentrations of S1P activated the wild type LPA2 and LPA 3 receptors, indicating that S1P may function as a weak agonist of endothelial differentiation gene family LPA receptors. © 2008 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Publication Title

Journal of Biological Chemistry