AHR Regulates Metabolic Reprogramming to Promote SIRT1-Dependent Keratinocyte Differentiation
Activation of the transcription factor, AHR, in normal human epidermal keratinocytes increased AHR binding in the gene regions of the glucose transporter, SLC2A1, and the glycolytic enzyme, ENO1. This increased chromatin binding corresponded with AHR-dependent decreases in levels of SLC2A1 and ENO1 mRNA, protein, and activities. Studies of the ENO1 promoter showed activation of the AHR decreases the transcription of ENO1. Glycolysis was lowered by activation of the AHR as measured by decreases in glucose uptake and the production of pyruvate and lactate. Levels of ATP were also decreased. Downregulation of glucose metabolism, either by activation of the AHR, inhibition of glycolysis, inhibition of glucose transport, or inhibition of enolase, increased SIRT1 protein levels in normal human epidermal keratinocytes and the immortalized keratinocyte cell line, N/TERT-1. This increase in SIRT1 was abrogated by the addition of exogenous pyruvate. Moreover, keratinocyte differentiation in response to downregulation of glycolysis, either by activation of the AHR, inhibition of glucose transport, or inhibition of enolase, was dependent on SIRT1. These results indicate that regulation of glycolysis controls keratinocyte differentiation, and that activation of the AHR, by lowering the expression of SLC2A1 and ENO1, can determine this fate.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Sutter, C., Olesen, K., Bhuju, J., & Guo, Z. (2019). AHR Regulates Metabolic Reprogramming to Promote SIRT1-Dependent Keratinocyte Differentiation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 139 (4), 818-826. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2018.10.019