A Genomewide Search Finds Major Susceptibility Loci for Nicotine Dependence on Chromosome 10 in African Americans


Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetic factors account for at least 50% of the liability for nicotine dependence (ND). Although several linkage studies have been conducted, all samples to date were primarily of European origin. In this study, we conducted a genomewide scan of 1,261 individuals, representing 402 nuclear families, of African American (AA) origin. We examined 385 autosomal microsatellite markers for ND, which was assessed by smoking quantity (SQ), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and the Fagerstrom Test for ND (FTND). After performing linkage analyses using various methods implemented in the GENEHUNTER and S.A.G.E. programs, we found a region near marker D10S1432 on chromosome 10q22 that showed a significant linkage to indexed SQ, with a maximum LOD score of 4.17 at 92 cM and suggestive linkage to HSI, SQ, and log-transformed SQ. Additionally, we identified three regions that met the criteria for suggestive linkage to at least one ND measure: on chromosomes 9q31 at marker D9S1825, 11p11 between markers D11S1993 and D11S1344, and 13q13 between markers D13S325 and D13S788. Other locations on chromosomes 15p11, 17q25, and 18q12 exhibited some evidence of linkage for ND (LOD >1.44). The four regions with significant or suggestive linkage were positive for multiple ND measures by multiple statistical methods. Some of these regions have been linked to smoking behavior at nominally significant levels in other studies, which provides independent replication of the regions for ND in different cohorts. In summary, we found significant linkage on chromosome 10q22 and suggestive linkage on chromosomes 9, 11, and 13 for major genetic determinants of ND in an AA sample. Further analysis of these positive regions by fine mapping and/or association analysis is thus warranted. To our knowledge, this study represents the first genomewide linkage scan of ND in an AA sample. © 2006 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

Publication Title

American Journal of Human Genetics