Lifestyle effects on the risk of transmission of covid-19 in the united states: Evaluation of market segmentation systems


The aim of this study was to associate lifestyle characteristics with COVID-19 infection and mortality rates at the U.S. county level and sequentially map the impact of COVID-19 on different lifestyle segments. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical testing to determine whether there is any correlation between COVID-19 infection and mortality rates and lifestyles. We used ESRI Tapestry LifeModes data that are collected at the U.S. household level through geodem-ographic segmentation typically used for marketing purposes to identify consumers’ lifestyles and preferences. According to the ANOVA analysis, a significant association between COVID-19 deaths and LifeModes emerged on 1 April 2020 and was sustained until 30 June 2020. Analysis of means (ANOM) was also performed to determine which LifeModes have incidence rates that are signifi-cantly above/below the overall mean incidence rate. We sequentially mapped and graphically illus-trated when and where each LifeMode had above/below average risk for COVID-19 infection/death on specific dates. A strong northwest-to-south and northeast-to-south gradient of COVID-19 incidence was identified, facilitating an empirical classification of the United States into several epi-demic subregions based on household lifestyle characteristics. Our approach correlating lifestyle characteristics to COVID-19 infection and mortality rate at the U.S. county level provided unique insights into where and when COVID-19 impacted different households. The results suggest that prevention and control policies can be implemented to those specific households exhibiting spatial and temporal pattern of high risk.

Publication Title

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health