The "European Miracle": Warrior aristocrats, spirit of liberty, and competition as a discovery process


The spirit of liberty and the competition as a discovery process as explained by Ricardo Duchesne is discussed. Duchesne stresses his teachings on the idea that gave rise to liberty, which, despite numerous obstacles, nourished horizontal relations among independent individuals. Duchesne examined the roots of the unique tradition of liberty that made possible various intellectual, artistic, and technological accomplishments in Europe and that, yes, contributed to its military and political hegemony. His goal was to bring to light a story of how in Europe, through the acts and deeds of heroic human actors who were more concerned about their individual autonomy and prestige, there emerged a type of society that held individual liberty in high esteem. Duchesne also compared European heroic tales with Near Eastern epics as Gilgamesh and found that the epics reflect the contrasting social ways in two different civilizations.

Publication Title

Independent Review

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