# Issues on computer search for large order multiple recursive generators

## Abstract

Multiple Recursive Generators (MRGs) have become the most popular random number generators recently. They compute the next value iteratively from the previous k values using a k-th order recurrence equation which, in turn, corresponds to a k-th degree primitive polynomial under a prime modulus p. In general, when k and p are large, checking if a k-th degree polynomial is primitive under a prime modulus p is known to be a hard problem. A common approach is to check the conditions given in Alanen and Knuth [1964] and Knuth [1998]. However, as mentioned in Deng [2004], this approach has two obvious problems: (a) it requires the complete factorization of pk - 1, which can be difficult; (b) it does not provide any early exit strategy for non-primitive polynomials. To avoid (a), one can consider a prime order k and prime modulus p such that (pk - 1)/(p - 1) is also a prime number as considered in L'Ecuyer [1999] and Deng [2004]. To avoid (b), one can use a more efficient iterative irreducibility test proposed in Deng [2004]. In this paper, we survey several leading probabilistic and deterministic methods for the problems of primality testing and irreducibility testing. To test primality of a large number, it is known that probabilistic methods are much faster than deterministic methods. On the other hand, a probabilistic algorithm in fact has a very tiny probability of, say, 10-200 to commit a false positive error in the test result. Moreover, even when such an unlikely event had happened, for a specific choice of k and p, it can be argued that such an error has a negligible effect on the successful search of a primitive polynomial. We perform a computer search for large-order DX generators proposed in Deng and Xu [2003] and present many such generators in the paper for ready implementation. An extensive empirical study shows that these large-order DX generators have passed the stringent Crush battery of the TestU01 package. © 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

## Publication Title

Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2006

## Recommended Citation

Deng, L.
(2008). Issues on computer search for large order multiple recursive generators.* Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2006*, 251-261.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74496-2_14