Identification of novel transcriptional networks in response to treatment with the anticarcinogen 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione


3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), an inducer of antioxidant and phase 2 genes, is known to enhance the detoxification of environmental carcinogens, prevent neoplasia, and elicit other protective effects. However, a comprehensive view of the regulatory pathways induced by this compound has not yet been elaborated. Fischer F344 rats were gavaged daily for 5 days with vehicle or D3T (0.3 mmol/kg). The global changes of gene expression in liver were measured with Affymetrix RG-U34A chips. With the use of functional class scoring, a semi-supervised method exploring both the expression pattern and the functional annotation of the genes, the Gene Ontology classes were ranked according to the significance of the impact of D3T treatment. Two unexpected functional classes were identified for the D3T treatment, cytosolic ribosome constituents with 90% of those genes increased, and cholesterol biosynthesis with 91% of the genes repressed. In another novel approach, the differentially expressed genes were evaluated by the Ingenuity computational pathway analysis tool to identify specific regulatory networks and canonical pathways responsive to D3T treatment. In addition to the known glutathione metabolism pathway (P = 0.0011), several other significant pathways were also revealed, including antigen presentation (P = 0.000476), androgen/estrogen biosynthesis (P = 0.000551), fatty acid (P = 0.000216), and tryptophan metabolism (P = 0.000331) pathways. These findings showed a profound impact of D3T on lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory/ immune-suppressive response, indicating a broader cytoprotective effect of this compound than previously expected. Copyright © 2006 the American Physiological Society.

Publication Title

Physiological Genomics