Inductive and inhibitory effects of non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls on estrogen metabolism and human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1


The effects of a series of non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), a 17β-estradiol (E2) 2-hydroxylase, and P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), an E2 4-hydroxylase, were investigated in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Elevated rates of 2- and 4-methoxyestradiol (2- and 4-MeOE2) formation in PCB-treated cultures were measured as activities of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, respectively. Of the congeners investigated, 3,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 81), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), and 3,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 39) caused marked stimulation of E2 metabolism in both cell lines. Northern blot analyses confirmed that exposure of MCF-7 cells to PCBs 81, 126, and 39 caused highly elevated levels of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNAs. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) resulted in elevated levels of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNAs, but did not cause elevated rates of E2 metabolism; rather, 4-MeOE2 production was depressed to below control levels in PCB 169-treated cultures. PCB 169 also inhibited the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced 4-MeOE2 and, to a lesser extent, 2-MeOE2 production in MCF-7 cells, as did PCB 126 and several other congeners. In microsomal assays, inhibition of cDNA-expressed human CYP1B1 by PCBs 169 and 126 was demonstrated. These studies with one subgroup of PCBs, the non-ortho-substituted congeners, underscore the complexity and diversity of effects of PCBs, as individual congeners were found both to induce expression and to inhibit activity of human CYP1B1 and CYP1A1. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.

Publication Title

Biochemical Pharmacology