Gesture-first, but no gestures?
Although Arbib's extension of the mirror-system hypothesis neatly sidesteps one problem with the "gesture-first" theory of language origins, it overlooks the importance of gestures that occur in current-day human linguistic performance, and this lands it with another problem. We argue that, instead of gesture-first, a system of combined vocalization and gestures would have been a more natural evolutionary unit.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences
McNeill, D., Bertenthal, B., Cole, J., & Gallagher, S. (2005). Gesture-first, but no gestures?. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28 (2), 138-139. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X05360031