In Chapter 8, the authors explore the notion of relational authenticity, arguing that to understand existential authenticity we must not return to the individuality celebrated by classical existentialism nor look for a reductionist explanation in terms of neuronal patterns or mental representations that would simply opt for a more severe methodological individualism and a conception of authenticity confined to proper brain processes. Rather, they propose, we should look for a fuller picture of authenticity in what they call the “4Es“—the embodied, embedded, enactive, and extended conception of mind. They argue that one requires the 4Es to maintain the 4Ms-mind, meaning, morals, and modality—in the face of reductionistic tendencies in neurophilosophy. The 4E approach, they contend, gives due consideration to the importance of the brain, taken as part of the brain-body-environment system, incorporating neuroscience and integrating phenomenological-existentialist conceptions that emphasize embodiment and the social environment.
Neuroexistentialism: Meaning, Morals, and Purpose in the Age of Neuroscience
Gallagher, S., Morgan, B., & Rokotnitz, N. (2018). Relational authenticity. Neuroexistentialism: Meaning, Morals, and Purpose in the Age of Neuroscience, 126-145. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190460723.003.0008