EPR Study of γ-Irradiated UHMWPE Doped with Vitamin E: Assessment of Thermal Effects on the Organic Radicals During Vitamin E Diffusion
Thermal effects on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) residual radicals during the vitamin E diffusion process were studied in detail. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique showed a significant reduction in concentrations of radiation-induced primary (alkyl (-CH2- CH-CH2-), allyl (-CH2-CH=CH-CH-CH2-) and polyenyl (-CH-[CH=CH-]m-) with m > 3) radicals for both control and vitamin E-doped samples. The concentrations of radiation-induced primary radicals (RIPRs) were found to decrease proportionally with the heat/diffusion time. While the EPR spectra of the control samples showed only polyethylene (PE) radicals, the spectra of vitamin E-doped samples were found to exhibit vitamin E radicals in addition to PE radicals. Of particular interest, the heat involved during vitamin E diffusion plays a significant role in reducing the radiation-induced primary radicals of UHMWPE. For 120 min of heat/diffusion time, the available quantity of primary radicals in control samples were found to be ~7. 5 % of initial radicals. The leftover amounts of these primary radicals for vitamin E-doped samples were approximately ~10.0 %. In addition to this, EPR power saturation techniques were also used to assess the effects of initial heat/diffusion treatment on the oxygen-induced residual radicals (OIRRs): R1 (-CH-[CH=CH-]m-) with m > 3 and R2 (OCH-[CH=CH-]m-) with m = 2 or 3. It was found that the concentration of OIRRs also decreases proportionally with initial heat/diffusion time. The remaining amount of OIRRs relative to leftover RIPRs after heat/diffusion was found to be approximately 4.0 % in controls and was still found to be 10.0 % in vitamin E-doped UHMWPE. This may indicate that vitamin E slows down the oxidation processes, which may contribute to the strong oxidation resistance of vitamin E-doped UHMWPE. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.
Applied Magnetic Resonance
Mehmood, M., Yasin, T., Jahan, M., Walters, B., Ahmad, M., & Ikram, M. (2013). EPR Study of γ-Irradiated UHMWPE Doped with Vitamin E: Assessment of Thermal Effects on the Organic Radicals During Vitamin E Diffusion. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 44 (4), 531-542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00723-012-0421-y