The influence of Pb content on the interfacial free energy of solid Sn in eutectic Pb–Sn liquid mixtures using molecular dynamics simulations


The solid–liquid interfacial free energy (γ) for binary Pb–Sn systems at different concentrations and crystal orientations is calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation that employs a modified-embedded atom method interatomic potential. First, the solid–liquid interface is constructed in MD simulations according to its calculated phase diagram. Then, the capillary fluctuation method (CFM) is employed for the calculation of the solid–liquid interfacial stiffness. A novel systematic approach is proposed that eliminates the error in the linear approximation of the CFM. The results show that orientation of the solid Sn crystal does not have a significant influence on the value of the stiffness, which explains the experimentally observed spherical shape of Sn particles in eutectic liquid Pb–Sn mixtures. The calculated γ for pure Sn is in good agreement with experimental counterparts. In addition, this study finds that γ slightly increases with increasing the concentration of Pb in the eutectic liquid Pb–Sn mixture, which agrees with available experimental data.

Publication Title

Molecular Simulation