Mechanism of high-mobility group protein B enhancement of progesterone receptor sequence-specific DNA binding


The DNA-binding domain (DBD) of progesterone receptor (PR) is bipartite containing a zinc module core that interacts with progesterone response elements (PRE), and a short flexible carboxyl terminal extension (CTE) that interacts with the minor groove flanking the PRE. The chromosomal high-mobility group B proteins (HMGB), defined as DNA architectural proteins capable of bending DNA, also function as auxiliary factors that increase the DNA-binding affinity of PR and other steroid receptors by mechanisms that are not well defined. Here we show that the CTE of PR contains a specific binding site for HMGB that is required for stimulation of PR-PRE binding, whereas the DNA architectural properties of HMGB are dispensable. Specific PRE DNA inhibited HMGB binding to the CTE, indicating that DNA and HMGB-CTE interactions are mutually exclusive. Exogenous CTE peptide increased PR-binding affinity for PRE as did deletion of the CTE. In a PR-binding site selection assay, A/T sequences flanking the PRE were enriched by HMGB, indicating that PR DNA-binding specificity is also altered by HMGB. We conclude that a transient HMGB-CTE interaction alters a repressive conformation of the flexible CTE enabling it to bind to preferred sequences flanking the PRE. © 2008 The Author(s).

Publication Title

Nucleic Acids Research