Title

Morphological differences in response to physiological integration and spatial heterogeneity of root zone glyphosate exposure in connected ramets of Ludwigia peploides (creeping water primrose)

Abstract

The effects of applying glyphosate to the root zone of one of a pair of connected ramets were investigated. In the low root density (LRD) treatment, daughter ramet roots were exposed to 100 mL of 10 mg L-1 glyphosate, while in the high root density (HRD) treatment, mother ramet roots were exposed to the same glyphosate solution. These treatments were compared to unexposed controls. The morphologies (leaf and shoot numbers) of control and HRD treatments were identical. In these treatments, daughter ramets had greater numbers of leaves and shoots than mother ramets. The morphology of the LRD treatment was opposite: mother ramets had more leaves and shoots than daughter ramets. Growth parameters were unaffected by glyphosate exposure except for relative growth rate, which was significantly greater for the HRD treatment. This study provides insights about the responses of clonal plants to physiological integration and spatially heterogeneous environmental stressors.

Publication Title

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

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