Ethnic differences in smoking withdrawal effects among adolescents
Smoking withdrawal effect information was collected from 75 adolescents (54 males and 21 females) making a quit attempt during a school-based smoking cessation program. A strong need to smoke was the most common withdrawal effect (60%), followed by irritability (51%), and difficulty concentrating (41%). Most (61%) participants experienced two or more withdrawal effects during the quit attempt, and withdrawal effects were evident in those smoking less than daily. Significant ethnic differences were found, with African Americans reporting significantly fewer withdrawal effects than Caucasians. After controlling for smoking frequency, African Americans were still less likely to report irritability, difficulty concentrating, and restlessness. Participants who chose to use nicotine replacement during the quit attempt were more likely to report difficulty concentrating, restlessness, and feeling miserable. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riedel, B., Robinson, L., Klesges, R., & McLain-Allen, B. (2003). Ethnic differences in smoking withdrawal effects among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 28 (1), 129-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00220-9