Problem-solving and cognitive scars in mood and anxiety disorders: The sting of mania
We examined the possibility that mood and anxiety disorders may "scar" problem-solving attitudes and outlook on life (e.g., erode optimistic feelings). Participants with high rates of both current and past mood and anxiety disorders were assessed. Results suggested that previous bipolar disorder might leave negative problem-solving attitudes and hopelessness scars, whereas major depression and anxiety disorders may not. These results were obtained when statistically controlling for a current diagnosis of major depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorder as well as for previous manic episodes and current symptom severity. Thus past bipolar disorder was implicated in ineffective problem-solving attitudes and pessimism scars.
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology
Joiner, T., Vohs, K., Rudd, M., Schmidt, N., & Pettit, J. (2003). Problem-solving and cognitive scars in mood and anxiety disorders: The sting of mania. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22 (2), 192-212. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.126.96.36.19964