The latent structure of ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD in a general population sample from USA: A factor mixture modelling approach


The validity of ICD-11 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD), as measured by the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ; Cloitre et al., 2018) has been supported in many factor analytic and mixture modelling studies. There is, however, a paucity of research investigating the latent structure of the ITQ using factor mixture modelling (FMM). FMM was applied to data collected from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 1834). FMM results demonstrated strong support for a two-factor second-order model with four qualitatively distinct latent classes: a ‘PTSD class’, a ‘CPTSD class’, a ‘DSO’ (Disturbances in Self-Organisation) class and a ‘low symptoms class’. Sexual abuse increased likelihood of membership to the ‘CPTSD’ (OR = 3.22) and physical abuse decreased likelihood of membership to the ‘PTSD’ (OR=0.51). Trauma exposure in adulthood predicted ‘PTSD’ and ‘CPTSD’ class membership. The ‘CPTSD class’ was characterised by higher levels of psychopathological co-morbidities and poorer psychological wellbeing compared to all other classes. Results provide additional support for the validity of PTSD and CPTSD as measured by the ITQ.

Publication Title

Journal of Anxiety Disorders