Exercise immunology: Future directions
Several decades of research in the area of exercise immunology have shown that the immune system is highly responsive to acute and chronic exercise training. Moderate exercise bouts enhance immunosurveillance and when repeated over time mediate multiple health benefits. Most of the studies prior to 2010 relied on a few targeted outcomes related to immune function. During the past decade, technologic advances have created opportunities for a multi-omics and systems biology approach to exercise immunology. This article provides an overview of metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics as they pertain to exercise immunology, with a focus on immunometabolism. This review also summarizes how the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota can be influenced by exercise, with applications to human health and immunity. Exercise-induced improvements in immune function may play a critical role in countering immunosenescence and the development of chronic diseases, and emerging omics technologies will more clearly define the underlying mechanisms. This review summarizes what is currently known regarding a multi-omics approach to exercise immunology and provides future directions for investigators.
Journal of Sport and Health Science
Nieman, D., & Pence, B. (2020). Exercise immunology: Future directions. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9 (5), 432-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2019.12.003