Potential Predictors of Vertical Jump Performance: Lower Extremity Dimensions and Alignment, Relative Body Fat, and Kinetic Variables


ABSTRACT: Daugherty, HJ, Weiss, LW, Paquette, MR, Powell, DW, and Allison, LE. Potential predictors of vertical jump performance: Lower extremity dimensions and alignment, relative body fat, and kinetic variables. J Strength Cond Res 35(3): 616-625, 2021-The association of structural and kinetic variables with restricted vertical jump (RVJ) displacement without and with added mass was examined in 60 men and women. Added mass (weighted vest) simulated a 5% increase in body fat (BF%). Independent variables included BF%, thigh length, and static Q-angle (Q-angles), and while performing RVJ, different expressions of frontal-plane knee angle (FPKA), dynamic Q-angle (Q-angled), vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), concentric vertical impulse (Iz), concentric rate of force development (CRFD), and vertical power (Pz). Variables having significant (p ≤ 0.05) negative correlations with RVJ displacement included BF% (r = -0.76) and Q-angles (r = -0.55). Those having significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive correlations with RVJ displacement included peak and average concentric Pz (r range = 0.74-0.81), peak and average concentric vGRF (r range = 0.46-0.67), Iz (r range = 0.32-0.54), thigh length (r = 0.31), minimum Q-angled (r = 0.31), and maximum FPKA (r = 0.28). Variables not associated (p > 0.05) with RVJ displacement included minimum and excursion FPKA (r = 0.11 and 0.23), maximum, excursion, and average Q-angled (r = 0.24, 0.11, and 0.22), and CRFD (r range = 0.19-0.24). A simple regression model predicted RVJ displacement (p = 1.00) for the simulated 5% increase in body fat. To maximize jumping performance, (a) high levels of body fat should be avoided, (b) peak and average Pz, vGRF, and Iz should be maximized through training, and (c) having a lower Q-angles is associated with better jumping ability.

Publication Title

Journal of strength and conditioning research