Date of Award
Master of Arts
Charles W. Crawford
Christine L. Eisel
Arwin D. Smallwood
Just north of the Cumberland Gap, the Pine Mountain community exemplifies cultural, industrial and educational forces that shaped Southern Appalachian history. Conflicts among Native American nations, particularly local Shawnees and neighboring Cherokees, gave southeastern Kentucky renown as "Bloody Ground." Black and white settlers arrived, and the area became home to Melungeons, an African, European and Native American triracial population. Pine Mountain's foundations took root in the early 19th century, developing a homestead culture. Traditions were shaken by the Civil War, local feuds and the rapid expansion of industrialization (timber, rail and coal). Coal camps and the struggle for unionization defined Harlan County throughout much of the 20th century. Pine Mountain Settlement School, founded in 1913 as a product of the Progressive Era, addressed student and community needs as they changed through the decades. Now a center for environmental and cultural education, Pine Mountain Settlement School preserves local ecology and cultural traditions.
dissertation or thesis originally submitted to the local University of Memphis Electronic Theses & dissertation (ETD) Repository.
McQuillen, Marly Hazen, "Pine Mountain: Community at the Crossroads of Appalachia" (2014). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 949.