Picomolar detection limits with current-polarized Pb2+ ion-selective membranes
Minor ion fluxes across ion-selective membranes bias submicromolar activity measurements with conventional ion-selective electrodes. When ion fluxes are balanced, the lower limit of detection is expected to be dramatically improved. As proof of principle, the flux of lead ions across an ETH 5435 ionophore-based lead-selective membrane was gradually compensated by applying a few nanoamperes of galvanostatic current. When the opposite ion fluxes were matched, and the undesirable leaching of primary ions was eliminated, Nernstian response down to 3 × 10-12 M was achieved.
Pergel, É., Gyurcsányi, R., Tóth, K., & Lindner, E. (2001). Picomolar detection limits with current-polarized Pb2+ ion-selective membranes. Analytical Chemistry, 73 (17), 4249-4253. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac010094a