A Scoping Review on Long COVID-19: Physiological and Psychological Symptoms Post-Acute, Long-Post and Persistent Post COVID-19


Background: The identification of persistent symptoms of chronic/long COVID-19 is crucial in understanding the management of long haulers of post COVID-19. Methods: Pub Med (Medline) database was scoped for original articles based on a search strategy related to the objectives. The selected articles post-screening were analyzed for variables relating to chronic/long COVID-19. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 33 studies were reviewed. A total of 60% of the studies were observational studies and most of them were from high income countries. Almost half of the studies were in phase 3 of post-COVID-19, i.e., symptoms lasting >24 weeks. Among the physiological and psychological symptoms studied, fatigue, dyspnea, cough, headache, memory loss, depression, brain fog and lack of concentration were found to be the most frequently reported symptoms. Excessive sleep, constipation and neuropathic pain were among the least reported symptoms. Prior hospitalization, the female gender was found to be a risk factor. Limitations were reported by all studies. Conclusions: The major physiological and psychological symptoms of long COVID-19 have been explained with risk factors and its impact on patients’ lifestyles. The findings of this review hope to facilitate clinicians to draw conclusions to manage the long-term effects of post/chronic COVID-19.

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Healthcare (Switzerland)